april 22 1865 harpweek

EDUCATION Ph.D., Art History, University of Delaware, 2014

  • Dissertation: Sculpting the Citizen Soldier: Reproduction and National Memory, 1865-1917 LINK
  • Advisor: Dr. Wendy Bellion
  • Major Field: American Art
  • Minor Field: Roman Art

MA, Art History, University of Delaware, 2008

  • Thesis: “Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monuments and the Rhetoric of Reunion”

BA, Art History and English, Rutgers University, 2005


Chair of Liberal Arts, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 2020-present

Interim Chair of Liberal Arts, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 2019-2020

Assistant Professor, Department of Liberal Arts, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 2017-present


Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan Fellowship, James Smithson Fellowship Program, Smithsonian Institution, 2018-2019

Suzanne and Caleb Loring Fellowship on the Civil War, Its Origins, and Consequences, Massachusetts Historical Society and Boston Athenaeum, 2014-2015

Summer Scholarship for The Visual Culture of the American Civil War, a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 2014 Luce/ACLS Dissertation Fellowship in American Art, 2013-2014

Sewell C. Biggs Dissertation Writing Award, Art History Department, University of Delaware, 2013

Jay and Deborah Last Fellowship, American Antiquarian Society, 2012-2013

Dissertation Fellowship, Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library, 2012-2013

Douglass Foundation Fellowship, Smithsonian American Art Museum, 2011-2012

Summer Research Fellowship for Graduate Students, Public Engagement in Material Culture Institute, Material Culture Studies, University of Delaware, 2011

University Graduate Fellows Award, University of Delaware, 2010-2011

Ailsa Mellon Bruce Predoctoral Fellowship for Historians of American Art to Travel Abroad, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery, 2010

Dissertation Development Grant, Art History Department, University of Delaware, 2010

Outstanding Achievement in Graduate Studies Award, Art History Department, University of Delaware, 2010



Army of the Dead: Civil War Soldier Monuments and the Politics of Permanence. (In progress)

Journal articles

“When Your Topic Goes Viral: Building a Public Scholarship Practice,” Panorama: Journal of the Association of Historians of American Art 5, no. 2 (Fall 2019). LINK

“Activism in the Classroom: Wikipedia and American Art.” Panorama: Journal of the Association of Historians of American Art 2, no. 2 (Fall 2016). LINK

“From Spray Cans to Minivans: Contesting the Legacy of Confederate Soldier Monuments in the Era of ‘Black Lives Matter.’” Public Art Dialogue 6, no. 1 (2016): 9-33. LINK

“‘An Army of Bronze Simulacra’: The Copied Soldier Monument and the American Civil War.” Nierika: Revista de Estudios de Arte 4, no. 7 (January-June 2015): 34-45. LINK

“‘A Brave and Gallant Soldier’: Civil War Monuments and the Funerary Sphere,” Common Place 14, no. 2 (Winter 2014). LINK

Book reviews

Review of What Can and Can’t Be Said: Race, Uplift, and Monument Building in the Contemporary South, by Dell Upton. Buildings and Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum, 24, no. 2 (Fall 2017): 117-118. LINK

Review of A Sisterhood of Sculptors: American Artists in Nineteenth-Century Rome, by Melissa Dabakis. Southeastern College Art Conference Review 16, no. 5 (2015): 680-682.

Review of The Nation’s First Monument and the Origins of the American Memorial Tradition, by Sally Webster. Panorama 1, no. 2 (Fall 2015). LINK

Review of Sculpting Doughboys: Memory, Gender, and Taste in America’s World War I Memorials, by Jennifer Wingate. Winterthur Portfolio 49, no. 2/3 (Summer/Autumn 2015): 128-129. LINK

Review of Recalling Deeds Immortal: Florida Monuments to the Civil War, by William B. Lees and Frederick P. Gaske. The Public Historian, 37, No. 2 (May 2015): 146-148. LINK

Columns, Commentaries, and Other Publications

“Bully Pulpit: Confederate Monuments and the Inevitable Forces of Change,” Panorama: Journal of the Association of Historians of American Art 4, no. 1 (Spring 2018). LINK

“Teaching American Art to American Artists: Object-Based Learning at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.” Panorama 2, no. 1 (Summer 2016). LINK

“Town Square Soldiers.” Civil War Times (February 2016): 34-39.


“Defeating the Lost Cause: Iconoclasm and the Confederate Landscape.” Toppling Monuments: A Symposium on History, Memory, and the Power of Images. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, April 19-20, 2018.

“Time Traveling Objects: Past, Future, Retrofuture, and Material Culture.” A salon in Mrs. M—-’s Cabinet, curated by the Chipstone Foundation, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, WI, December 17, 2016.

“Sentinels Keep Watch: The Civil War Citizen Soldier and American Sculpture.” North Shore Civil War Roundtable, South Huntington Public Library, Huintington, New York, June 2, 2016.

“‘Dear Mamma you must let me go’: Memory and Loss in Post-Civil War American Art.” Art at Lunch Lecture Series, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 30, 2016.

“Army of the Dead: Civil War Monuments, the Lost Cause, and the Afterlife of Memory.” Master’s Degree Program in the History of Decorative Arts, George Mason University, Washington, D.C., June 1, 2015.

“Bivouac of the Dead: Confederate Monuments and the Politics of Mourning.” The Art of Memory and Mourning: A Symposium in Honor of Cynthia J. Mills, Smithsonian American Art Museum, November 14, 2014.

“Forlorn Soldiers and Buried Riflemen: Remembering the Civil War Citizen Soldier.” Reading Public Museum, Reading Pennsylvania, May 31, 2013.

“Re/Membering the Citizen Soldier: Civil War Bodies in Granite and Bronze.” St. Francis College, Brooklyn, New York, April 8, 2013.


Panels Organized

“The Afterlives of Objects: Impermanence in American Art.” Southeaster College Art Conference, Roanoke, VA, October 19-22, 2016.

With Ellery Foutch and Amy Torbert, “The Miseries of Reproduction: Intractable Media and American Art of the Long Nineteenth Century.” American Studies Association, Toronto, Canada, October 8-11, 2015.

Co-chair with Amanda Douberley, “The Color of Sculpture.” Southeastern College Art Conference, Sarasota, Florida, October 8-11, 2014.

Co-chair with Amanda Douberley, “Sculpture’s Multiples.” Southeastern College Art Conference, Greensboro, North Carolina, October 30-November 2, 2013.

Papers Presented

“Competing Histories: Frederick Douglass and the Courthouse Lawn in Easton, Maryland.” Southeastern College Art Conference, Chattanooga, TN, October 16-19, 2019.

“Public Space, Public Outreach: Redefining the Memorial Landscape.” College Art Association, New York, NY, February 14, 2019.

“Confederate Monuments: Southern Heritage or Southern Art?” Southeastern College Art Conference, Birmingham, AL, October 20, 2018.

“The Act of Iconoclasm: When Confederate Monuments Go Clunk in the Night.” Midwest Art History Society, Indianapolis, IN, April 5-7, 2018.

With Evie Terrono, “Monuments in Crisis: Debates on the Confederate Landscape.” College Art Association, Los Angeles, CA, February 21-24, 2018.

“Revising the Memory Landscape: The Spanish-American War and the Commemoration of America’s Armed Forces.” Southeastern College Art Conference, Columbus, OH, October 25-28, 2017.

“After Charleston: Politics, Protest, and the Future of the Civil War Soldier Monument.” Nineteenth Century Studies Association, Charleston, SC, February 2-4, 2017.

“Monumental Crisis: The Civil War Citizen Soldier in 21st-Century American Life.” Association of Historians of American Art, Fort Worth, Texas, October 6-8, 2016.

“Expanding Instructional Resources: Toward an Inclusive American Art Survey.” College Art Association, Washington, DC, February 3-6, 2016.

“Toward a Manly Ideal: Kitson’s Hiker and the Spanish-American War.” Southeastern College Art Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 21-24, 2015.

“Resorting to Reproduction: The Elbert County Confederate Monument and the Failure of Originality.” American Studies Association, Toronto, Canada, October 8-11, 2015.

“Empty Sleeves: Disability and Agency in the Photographs of Sgt. Alfred Stratton.” Nineteenth Century Studies Association, Boston, Massachusetts, March 26-28, 2015.

“Yankees, Automobiles and Other Hazards: Shattered Monuments and the Problem of Confederate Memory.” College Art Association, Chicago, Illinois, February 12-15, 2014.

“‘An Interloper in the Cause’: The Fall of the Elbert County Confederate Monument and the Embodiment of Civil War Memory.” Material Culture Symposium for Emerging Scholars, presented by the Center for Material Culture Studies at the University of Delaware and Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library, Winterthur, Delaware, April 20, 2013.

“‘Only a Private’: Confederate Soldier Monuments and the Politics of the Lost Cause.” Virginia Forum, Randolph-Macon College, March 21-23, 2013.

“Sentinel at the Old North Bridge: French’s Minute Man and the Monument Market.” Southeastern College Art Conference, Durham, North Carolina, October 18-20, 2012.

“Sculpting the Citizen Soldier: Reproduction and National Memory, 1865-1917.” Graduate Student Lightning Round, Association of Historians of American Art, Boston, Massachusetts, October 11-13, 2012.

“‘Weird Copies of Carnage’: Re/Membering the Union Soldier in Granite and Bronze.” Fellows’ Lectures in American Art, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC, April 11-12, 2012.

“Sculpting the Citizen Soldier: Forging Icons of Memory in Post-Civil War America.” Southeastern College Art Conference, Savannah, Georgia, November 9-12, 2011.

“Sculpting the Citizen Soldier: Local Memory, National Narratives, and the Civil War.” New England American Studies Association, Plymouth, Massachusetts, November 4-6, 2011.

“Building Identity: From American Portraiture to the Avatar.” Art History Workshop, Kira Institute, Second Life, December 19, 2010.

“‘Ghost Structure’: Franklin Court and the Performance of Memory.” Minnesota Chapter of the Society of Architectural Historians Fifth Annual Student Symposium on the Built Environment, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 25, 2010.

“Race and the Reunited Nation in Milmore’s American Sphinx.” Visible Memories Conference, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, October 2-4, 2008.


Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  • Assistant Professor, beginning Fall 2017
  • Instructor of Record, 2015-2017
  • “American Sculpture,” Spring 2018, Fall 2019.
  • “Introduction to Art History II,” Spring 2017, Spring 2018, Spring 2020.
  • “Introduction to Art History I,” Fall 2016, Fall 2017, Fall 2019.
  • “War and Art in America,” Fall 2016.
  • “Women in American Art,” Fall 2015, Spring 2017, Spring 2020. “American Art to 1945,” Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Fall 2017.

Instructor of Record, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  • “World Photography Since 1839,” Spring 2016.
  • “The Civil War in American Art and Material Culture,” Spring 2016 (graduate seminar).

Instructor of Record, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware

  • “Civil War Stuff: Writing History Through Objects,” Spring 2015, Spring 2016.
  • “American Art to 1865,” Summer 2009.

Teaching Assistant, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware

  • “American Art 1865 to Present,” Spring 2013.
  • “Introduction to Art History II,” Spring 2010.
  • “Introduction to Art History I,” Fall 2008.
  • “Visual Culture,” Spring 2008.
  • “Art, Architecture and Power in Africa,” Fall 2007.


Graduate Research Assistant, Center for Historic Architecture and Design (CHAD), University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. Worked with the Scenic Highways team to prepare two nominations to the Delaware State Scenic and Historic Highways Program, 2006-2007.


College Art Association

Association of Historians of American Art

Southeastern College Art Conference

American Studies Association

Public Art Dialogue

Nineteenth Century Studies Association

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